India is an effervescent parliamentary democracy since its political freedom from British rule more than 50 years ago. The country does not face any real threat of a serious revolutionary movement which might lead to a collapse of state machinery. Sovereign risk in India is hence nil for both "foreign direct investment" and "foreign portfolio investment." Many Industrial and Business houses have restrained themselves from investing in the North-Eastern part of the country due to unstable conditions. Nonetheless investing in these parts is lucrative due to the rich mineral reserves here and high level of literacy. Kashmir on the northern tip is a militancy affected area and hence investment in the state of Kashmir are restricted by law.
India has enjoyed successive years of elected representative government at the Union as well as federal level. India suffered political instability for a few years in the sense there was no single party which won clear majority and hence it led to the formation of coalition governments. However, political stability has firmly returned since the general elections in 1999, with strong and healthy coalition governments emerging. Nonetheless, political instability did not change India's bright economic course though it delayed certain decisions relating to the economy. Economic liberalization which mostly interested foreign investors has been accepted as essential by all political parties including the Communist Party of India (Marxist) which is dead against a free economic world.
Political instability in India, in terms of different ideologies of political parties hence posed no investment risk to foreign investors as no policy framed by a past government has been upturned by any successive government so far. Though there are bleak chances of political instability in the future, even if such a situation arises the economic policy of India would hardly be affected.. Being a strong democratic nation the chances of an army coup or foreign dictatorship are minimal. Hence, political risk in India is practically absent.
Commercial risk exists in any business ventures of a country. Not each and every product or service is profitably accepted in the market. Hence it is advisable to study the demand / supply condition for a particular product or service before making any major investment. In India one can avail the facilities of a large number of market research firms in exchange for a professional fee to study the state of demand / supply for any product. As it is, entering the consumer market involves some kind of gamble and hence involves commercial risk.
Risk Due To Terrorism
In the recent past, India has witnessed several terrorist attacks on its soil which could have a negative impact on investor confidence. Not only business environment and return on investment, but also the overall security conditions in a nation have an effect on FDI's. Though some of the financial experts think otherwise. They believe the negative impact of terrorist attacks would be a short term phenomenon. In the long run, it is the micro and macro economic conditions of the Indian economy that would decide the flow of Foreign investment and in this regard India would continue to be a favorable investment destination.