The term preamble refers to preface, preliminary statement or introduction. In the Indian Constitution, the Preamble deals with the aims and objectives, the targets and ideals and the basis and foundation of the Indian Constitution. It is correlated with the Objective Resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
The preamble states that "We, the People Of India, have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic and to ensure to all its citizens: Justice-social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.
The significant features of the Indian Constitution are of two types. There are some features which exist only in the Indian constitution, while there are other features which even though can exist in other Constitution, are distinctively important.
Framed By The People Of India
The Constitution has been framed by the representatives of the people of India through a Constitution Assembly during 1946-49.
Derived From Various Sources
It has been derived from various sources. The various provisions derived are Fundamental Rights and Supreme Court from the USA, Directive Principles Of State Policy from Ireland, Emergency from Germany, Distribution of Legislative powers from Canada and Parliamentary Institutions from United Kingdom.
Sovereignty Of The People
The Constitution propagates the people of India to be the supreme authority. It means the people of India are not secondary to any other external agency.
The Constitution proclaims India to be a republic.
The Constitution declares India as a secular nation. It clearly specifies there should not be any discrimination on the basis of religion and all religion should be treated equally.
Fundamental Rights And Duties
The Constitution provides for Fundamental rights and duties. The fundamental duties were included into the constitution through an amendment in 1976.
The Constitution is a comprehensive document with 395 articles and twelve schedules.
It advocates India to have a Parliamentary form of government. In parliamentary democracy, members are selected b the way of elections.
Federal Form Of Polity
It advocates a federal form of government. But even after the setting up of a federal form of government, some critics have expressed dissatisfaction, calling it a Unitary Constitution.