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The article presents the facts with respect to India’s population and the factors having a bearing on India’s population.

Population of India

Population Of India crossed one billion in 2000.India's population is expected to cross China's population in the next 20 years. According to government estimates, every year India adds more people than any other nation. At present India has a young population, which is expected to grow older due to the current fertility decline.

Factors Having An Impact On Population In India

Like most developing countries, India has made tremendous progress in mortality. Since independence the life expectancy has nearly doubled from about 32-33 years in 1947 to 62 years in 1997.The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has also reduced drastically. India is better off in IMR compared to its neighbors Pakistan and Bangladesh, though it is much higher than China, Sri Lanka and South East Asian countries.

India has made substantial progress in bringing down the fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.7 children per woman in the mid 1960's to 3.3 children in 1997.There is a wide variance in fertility among different states. It is below the national average in the southern and western states and higher in the other states.

Contraceptive Prevalence
The establishment of national family planning program in 1952 has played a vital role in India's fertility decline. At that time, there was less awareness of use of modern birth control methods. But after four decades in 1992-93, the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) found almost universal awareness of family planning. Education, religion, place and State of residence are some of the factors that have a strong correlation with contraceptive use in India. The usage of contraceptive among married women with some primary schooling was greater than those of illiterate women. Similarly the usage of contraceptive was greater among the urban population than the rural population.

An improved literacy and education condition off the population has led to an increasing awareness for smaller family size.

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