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The article provides a outlook on the preamble, the constitution in India, the unique features of the constitution, fundamental rights and duties and directive principles of state policy.

Indian Constitution

The term preamble refers to preface, preliminary statement or introduction. In the Indian Constitution, the Preamble deals with the aims and objectives, the targets and ideals and the basis and foundation of the Indian Constitution. It is correlated with the Objective Resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.

The preamble states that "We, the People Of India, have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic and to ensure to all its citizens: Justice-social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

Indian Constitution

Significant Features
The significant features of the Indian Constitution are of two types. There are some features which exist only in the Indian constitution, while there are other features which even though can exist in other Constitution, are distinctively important.

Unique Features

Framed By The People Of India
The Constitution has been framed by the representatives of the people of India through a Constitution Assembly during 1946-49.

Derived From Various Sources
It has been derived from various sources. The various provisions derived are Fundamental Rights and Supreme Court from the USA, Directive Principles Of State Policy from Ireland, Emergency from Germany, Distribution of Legislative powers from Canada and Parliamentary Institutions from United Kingdom.

Sovereignty Of The People
The Constitution propagates the people of India to be the supreme authority. It means the people of India are not secondary to any other external agency.

Republican Polity
The Constitution proclaims India to be a republic.

Secular Polity
The Constitution declares India as a secular nation. It clearly specifies there should not be any discrimination on the basis of religion and all religion should be treated equally.

Fundamental Rights And Duties
The Constitution provides for Fundamental rights and duties. The fundamental duties were included into the constitution through an amendment in 1976.

Other Features

Comprehensive Document
The Constitution is a comprehensive document with 395 articles and twelve schedules.

Parliamentary Democracy
It advocates India to have a Parliamentary form of government. In parliamentary democracy, members are selected b the way of elections.

Federal Form Of Polity
It advocates a federal form of government. But even after the setting up of a federal form of government, some critics have expressed dissatisfaction, calling it a Unitary Constitution.

Fundamental Rights
  • Right to Equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Right
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Saving of Certain Laws
Fundamental Duties
  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of enquiry and reform
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
Directive Principles of State Policy
  • State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
  • Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state.
  • Organization of village panchayats.
  • Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
  • Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
  • Living wage, etc., for workers.
  • Uniform civil code for the citizens.
  • Provision of free and compulsory education for children.
  • Promotion of education and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
  • Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health;
  • Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
  • Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
  • Separation of judiciary from executive.
  • Promotion of international peace and security.

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